The Vault

Advanced Air Interface
Presentation / Mar 2015 / 5G, small cell, spectrum, mmW

Advanced waveforms and multiple access, advanced antenna and multi-site technologies, novel duplexing schemes, new and flexible spectrum usage. These 5G Air Interface technology trends and more are detailed in this 2015 Mobile World Congress presentation.

1 Advanced Air Interface Mobile World Congress 2015 ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Services: the evolution to the smarter, living network 5G will deliver next level of experience and enabling business models Wave 1 (Voice) Wave 2 (Visual) 5G:The Living Network New services, new business models Glory days of GSM Integrated telephony applications IMS promises Walled garden worries! Ride of the OTT A new status quo Rise of the mobile internet The video experience The living experience Video ++ ? IoE ? Tactile internet ? Mission critical ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5G radio interface: Initial requirements & enablers 3? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps 10 to 50 Gbps 1 to 10 TBps/Km2 1 ms 5 to 15 times 4G 50 to 100 times 4G User experienced data rate Peak data rate Area traffic capacity Latency Spectral efficiency Energy efficiency Small cell densification Spectrum extension Multi-technology aggregation Ultra fast processing Ultra fast switching Ultra fast transmission Flexible spectrum sharing Massive multiplexing Interference mitigation 4? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. New and flexible spectrum usage ? New large spectrum at mmW frequencies ? Carrier Aggregation of discontinuous bands ? Dual band split user and control plane ? Joint multi-RATs management ? Cognitive techniques (Spectrum Sensing) Novel duplexing schemes ? Joint TDD-FDD operation ? Dynamic TDD ? Single channel full duplexing Advanced antenna and multi-site technologies ? 3D-beamforming and MU-MIMO ? Active Antenna System (AAS) ? Massive MIMO ? Network MIMO (Adv. CoMP) Advanced waveforms and multiple access ? More flexible waveforms than pure OFDM (e.g. RBF- OFDM; FBMC; etc.) ? Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) ? Broader set of modulation and coding schemes ? Advanced interference coordination and cancellation techniques ? Flexible functional split (virtualization / cloudification) ? Flexible backhauling and joint optimization with access 5G Air Interface: Technology trends 5 5G radio interface: Deeper dives ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Advanced interference mitigation + Flexible function virtualization In-band full duplexing Multiple Antennas Advanced waveforms Millimeter wave small cells access and backhaul 6? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Millimeter Wave Hotspots: Enabling the Path to 5G ? The Technology Solution for 5G Small Cell Access and Backhaul ? Abundant Millimeter Wave Spectrum can provide fiber-like capacity ? Growth beyond what emerging Small Cell and Spectrum Sharing solutions can provide (100x ? 1000x growth!) Next G eNB mmW backhaul mmW access Traditional Cellular Link Full mmH Architecture 5G AccessWireless Mesh Backhaul MWC 2015 B E A D CG 2016 2020 2023 mmW Phase Array Radio and Antenna Earliest Commercialization Timeline 7 Millimeter Wave Hotspots: Enabling the Path to 5G Options for Network Integration 3GPP ? mB underlay integrated with RAN architecture, with no Core Network impact ? Tight interworking at lower-layers between new mmWave RAT and evolved LTE RAN ? Control plane functions provided by eNB and data capacity provided by local mB ? mB joint access and backhaul design 802.11 (Wi-Fi) ? Interfaces with Core Network using standards based WLAN/3GPP interworking ? Mesh extension of existing mmWave MAC/PHY ? Shared mB equipment for backhaul and access ? Multi-band (2.4/5/60 GHz) support for enhanced coverage ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. P-GW 802.11 3GPP mB mBA mB mB Internet mB mB mBA MME S1-U S1-U S-GW S2a Trusted WLAN Gateway (TWAG) eNB Control Data mB = Millimeter Wave Basestation mBA = mB Aggregator 8? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Millimeter Wave Small Cell Backhaul INTERDIGITAL, IMEC AND PERASO DEMONSTRATE WORLD?S FIRST WIGIG?-BASED MILLIMETER WAVE MESH BACKHAUL SYSTEM ? System-oriented approach to develop future small cell platform ? High throughput over range suitable for urban small cell ? 60GHz Phased Array with electronic beam steering reduces installation cost and provides interference management ? Leverage high volume WiGig baseband ? Low-cost, high capacity, scalable design for today?s small cell backhaul and future 5G millimeter wave access ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2023 0 200 400 600 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 OpenFlow-based Mesh Controller Deployment Tools InterDigital 60GHz Small Cell Backhaul Prototype Expected Range VS Rate Gbps M et er s Detailed System Simulations: Design to Deployment Multi-Level System Modeling: ? Phased Array performance ? 60 GHz Propagation modeling ? Mesh formation and multi-hope data transmission ? 3D Ray Tracing with 1 meter building/clutter data ? 14K street light ?real world? light urban model 9? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14,000 street lights Detailed view of LOS availabilityPhased Array Pattern 3D Ray Tracing ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Advanced waveforms ? Future wireless systems calls for advanced waveforms that support dynamic spectrum sharing ? Key candidate waveforms emerging: 10? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Suitable for asynchronous access Suitable for fragmented spectrum Increased robustness to T/F offsets Low cost & Low latency O FD M Filter-Bank Multi-Carrier Universal Filtered Multi-CarrierGeneralized Frequency Division Multiplexing Resource-Block-Filtered OFDM ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Advanced Waveform: InterDigital?s Design Maximizing dynamic spectral sharing capability Resource Block OFDM (RB-OFDM) ? Partition available spectrum into individually manageable resource blocks ? Apply FBMC techniques at resource block level ? Very flexible in controlling ACL and ACS Windowing OFDM (W-OFDM) ? Low complexity ? Low overhead ? Combination of Tx and Rx windowing is necessary to control both ACL and ACS for sharing spectrum among non-synchronized networks 11? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. W-OFDM Transmitter and receiver QAM Modulated Symbols Estimated Symbols Rx Windowing CP removal FFT EqualizationRF S/P IFFT CP & CS Attach Tx Windowing RF & PA RB Modulation RB-OFDM Transmitter QAM Modulated Symbols S/P PARB-MCM Freq. Shift f RB2 NRB.2 RB-MCM Freq. Shift fRB,KNRB.K NRB.1 RB-MCM Freq. Shift f RB1 Power Control Advanced Waveforms: InterDigital?s Proof of Concept 12? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Multiple Antennas: Massive MIMO A form of multiuser MIMO in which the number of antennas at the base station is much larger than the number of devices ? Major Benefits ? Enormous spectral efficiency gain ? Significantly high energy efficiency ? Multiple access may be simplified ? Simple linear transceivers become optimal ? Two forms of massive MIMO ? Co-located massive MIMO ? Distributed massive MIMO 13? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Co- located Massive MIMO Distributed Massive MIMO ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 ? Opportunities ? Advanced MIMO schemes ? Interference alignment ? Hybrid analog and digital beamforming ? Hybrid duplexing (FDD & TDD) schemes ? Non-coherent detection ? C-RAN and virtual network architectures ? mm Waves Multiple Antennas: Opportunities and Challenges 14? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ? Challenges ? Form factor constraint ? Radio impairments ? Interferences ? High mobility ? Cost and complexity ? Backhaul networks ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Multiple Antennas: InterDigital?s focus Adaptive beam forming for mmWave Channel Modeling ? Using ray tracing for system simulations ? Validation with real world measurements. Antenna effects ? Antenna orientation in mmWave handhelds ? Trade-off between number of elements per array Vs. number of arrays at handheld to counter self-blocking. ? Trade-offs between beam-width and equalization in outdoor mmW channels ? Narrower beam-width would deliver adequate performance with linear equalizers. ? Wider beam-widths require decision feedback equalization for improved performance. 15? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Manhattan Deployment Equalizer comparisons mB and UE array element patterns -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 x [dB] P (S IN R > x ) METIS - Effect of Self Blocking - CCDF of Maximum SINR Self-Blocking: UE1(1x8) Self-Blocking: UE4(1x8) No Self-Blocking: UE1(1x8) No Self-Blocking: UE4(1x8) Self Blocking effects [1] S. Ferrante et al. ?mm Wave UE Antenna Configuration Study?, to appear in IEEE VTC Spring 2015. [2] M. Ghosh et al. ?Equalization for outdoor mmW deployments? , to appear in IEEE VTC Spring 2015. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In-band full duplexing Simultaneous Transmit and Receive, enabled by advanced self-interference cancellation (exceeding the bar of 100 dB) ? Major Benefits ? Up to 2x link spectral efficiency gain ? Significantly improved MAC efficiency ? Reduced air interface latency (vs. TDD) ? Better UL/DL decoupling (vs. TDD) ? Two forms ? Restricted (single user/link) ? Unrestricted (multiple users/links) 16 Restricted IBFD Unrestricted IBFD STA AP SIC SIC SIC UL UL DL DL CCI STA 1 STA 2 AP/Relay ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 ? Opportunities ? Small cell backhaul (in and out band) ? Small cell relays ? Small cell hybrid full-half duplex access points ? Directional access (e.g. mmWave) ? Vehicular communications (V2V, V2X) In-band full duplexing: Opportunities & Challenges 17? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ? Challenges ? Self-interference cancellation ? Form factor constraint ? Cost and complexity ? Large bandwidth ? Massive MIMO ? Co-channel interference in multi-cell multi-user deployment ? Co-existence with legacy duplex schemes (TDD/FDD) (Trad_up) (BS -> BS) (UE -> UE) (UE -> UE) (Trad_up) Self interference Cell 1 Cell 2 UE 4 UE 2 UE 1 UE 3 In-band full duplexing: InterDigital?s project 18? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. System gain/loss from using full duplex radios Challenge ? Simultaneous transmission and reception in full duplex operation introduce more interferences than that in half duplex operation ? System throughput could be lower ? The system suffers from very low energy efficiency (bits/Joule) if targeting on high throughput only Solution ? Apply intelligent power control and resource allocation scheduling algorithms ? Include energy efficiency in the scheduling algorithm ? Keep half duplex as an operation option in each cell ? Joint power control and resource allocation algorithm In do or C as e O ut do or C as e HD FD95dB SIC FD 105dB SIC FD Perfect SIC 3.75 7.23 (93%) 7.35 (96%) 7.39 (97%) Average Throughput (Mbps) HD FD95dB SIC FD 105dB SIC FD Perfect SIC 2.61 4.07 (56%) 4.22 (62%) 4.25 (63%) Average Throughput (Mbps) Achieving ~2X throughput Need better interference control ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ?Advanced Air Interface?Mobile World Congress 2015? Services: the evolution to the smarter, living network?5G will deliver next level of experience and enabling business models? 5G radio interface: Initial requirements & enablers 5G Air Interface: Technology trends 5G radio interface: Deeper dives Millimeter Wave Hotspots: ?Enabling the Path to 5G Millimeter Wave Hotspots: ?Enabling the Path to 5G Millimeter Wave Small Cell Backhaul?InterDigital, imec and Peraso Demonstrate World?s First WiGig?-based Millimeter Wave Mesh Backhaul System? Detailed System Simulations: Design to Deployment?? Advanced waveforms?? Advanced Waveform: InterDigital?s Design?? Advanced Waveforms: InterDigital?s Proof of Concept?? Multiple Antennas: Massive MIMO?? Multiple Antennas: ?Opportunities and Challenges Multiple Antennas: InterDigital?s focus?? In-band full duplexing In-band full duplexing: ?Opportunities & Challenges In-band full duplexing: InterDigital?s project