The Vault

Path to 5G Overview
Presentation / Mar 2015 / 5G, Small Cell, mmW, M2M/IoT

The first commercial deployments of 5G networks are predicted to begin in just five years, but what exactly comprises 5G is still a subject of considerable debate within the wireless R&D community. A number of companies and experts, including InterDigital, have already started to shape their vision of 5G. This 2015 Mobile World Congress presentation explores the path to 5G and InterDigital's vision - The Living Network.

1 Path to 5G Overview Mobile World Congress 2015 ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 So where are we with 5G? Further along than you might think ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Drivers & Requirements: the most diverse in any generation! 8K Ultra High Definition will be available around 2020 driving 2600x traffic of 2010 50 Billion+ things across a dozen industries, unsynchronized, all talking at the same time Real time interaction with environments is crucial to engagement of human beings New levels of life interactive experiences shaping new wireless requirements ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The internet of everything (and an awful lot of everything!) Tactile internet Video, video & more video! Mission critical apps 4G purposed mainly for VIDEO? 5G video ++ ? IoE ? TACTILE internet ? mission critical IMT-2020 4 Drivers & Requirements: gathering international consensus 4G purposed mainly for VIDEO? 5G video ++ ? IoE ? TACTILE internet ? mission critical IMT-2020 LTE-A LTE 50Mbps 150Mbps 500Mbps 1Gbps 16.32 30 upto20MHz upto100MHz ~10ms ~5ms Peak Data Rate: Spectral Efficiency: Carrier Bandwidth: Latency (RTT): <1millisecond latency (when needed) 10-50Gbps peak data rates 90% Energy reduction per service 100-500MHz Carrier Bandwidth Higher Density: Millions of connections per km2 Higher Traffic Volume: 1-10 Tbps per km2 Rapid Service Creation (from days to minutes) Sustainable Total Cost of Owner for all players User Definable Security & Privacy *Key requirements harmonized & agreed in ITU-R WP5D ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 The Players: organized well across industry and academia 5G is in very real discussion & is expanding across the international stage ? Horizon 2020 ? 5GPPP Program (InterDigital Europe) ? EU FP7 Program ? METIS, 5GNOW, MAMMOET, etc. ? 5G Innovation Center (5GIC) ? University of Surrey ? Korean 5G Forum Initiative, Korea (InterDigital Asia) ? IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group, China ? ARIB 2020 & Beyond Ad Hoc Group, Japan ? Leading 5G Universities: NYU, MIT, Berkeley, Stanford ? Various NSF Projects: FIA Program, Xdensification ? Intel Strategic Research Alliance, Qualcomm Institute ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Asia Americas Europe International 6 5G Roadmap: with key international event drivers 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Winter Olympics: KOREA Summer Olympics: Japan FIFA World Cup: Quatar WRC-15 InterDigital Vision 2020, Creating the Living Network, 5G? Rel 12 Rel 13 Rel 14 Rel 15 Rel 16 WRC-19 802.11ax - 6G Wi-Fi! 802.11ax Standard. (<6GHz) NG60 SG WiGig3.0 - 6G Wi-Fi! WiGig2.0 Standard 5G Studies STANDARDIZATION WAVE 1 (<6GHz) 5G PRODUCTS & DEPLOYMENT START! Standardization continues? LTE-B LTE-C Vision Requirements Proposals 5G Research, Prototyping, Trials (5GPPP, 5G Forum, etc.) ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 The Path to 5G A Path Long Travelled ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Services Subsystem The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 Services: the evolution to the smarter, living network 5G will deliver next level of experience and enabling business models Wave 1 (Voice) Wave 2 (Visual) 5G:The Living Network New services, new business models Glory days of GSM Integrated telephony applications IMS promises Walled garden worries! Rise of the OTT A new status quo Rise of the mobile internet The video experience The living experience ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1010 What needs to happen ? New broad innovation (in 4G & 5G) in the area of networking technology to enable flexible models that may be equitably leveraged by both operators and OTT ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Over the Top Players want? ? Access to subscriber information including phone types, history, etc. ? Real time knowledge of network conditions & level of quality of service ? Ability to manage the quality of service on application, user basis Services: business models must and will change in 5G What Mobile Operators want? ? Sell new services and key assets such as quality of service, status, etc. ? Monetize secure and scalable XaaS hosting services for OTT customers ? Grow their business? in a predictable & sustainable way enabling 5G potential 5G may simply not happen unless a ?happy? consensus is reached here? 11 Services: the IoE New Frontier but a very similar story ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ? A wealth of rich data remains closed behind legacy and highly fragmented silos common today across most vertical industries (e.g. transport, energy) ? The opening of this data in an economical way will enable a leap in context awareness that will serve to drive the deep fabric of 5G network operation Connectivity Service/App. Enablement Managed Data Devices Devices (1)Yesterday (2)Today (3)Tomorrow Where the many verticals are stalled today Management Services Connectivity M2M ? IoE Evolution Connectivity Devices Management Services 12 Network Subsystem The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Th e In te rn et P ro to co l ? Ru bi co n? Network: and in the beginning there was ?virtualization? 5G will be about more of this (deeper virtualization, broader usage of SDN) First wave of virtualization and the second the third & not last NFV : Separate SERVICE logic from HW Platform SDN: Separate CONTROL and DATA planes Emergence of NFV and SDN Technology NFV=Network Function Virtualization, SDN=Software Defined Networking Circuit Switching all IP Break up of Bell system in USA 1982 Mid 80?s Mid 90?s+ Mid/Late 00?s+ Emergence of Intelligent Networking (SS#7/AIN) STEP1 : Separate SERVICE logic from switching Infrastructure ?giving us 800#, voicemail, Caller ID and GSM! STEP2 : Separate CONTROL and DATA planes (Commodity Hardware) Emergence of Soft Switch Technology (MGCP, MEGACO, SIP) ?the era of Convergence ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 Network Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow 5G will leverage this tech across and deeper into its architecture and business models 5G requirements will push ?caching? deeper into both the network & wireless subsystems 5G ? infinite bandwidth but it may deliver a perception of it through contextualization ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Deep Content & Information Management Contextualization Cloudification Virtualization 15 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem SDN is an approach to networking in which routing control is decoupled from the physical infrastructure enabling a networking fabric across multi-vendor equipment NFV moves network services out of dedicated hardware devices into software. Functions that in the past required specialized hardware devices can now be performed on standard x86 servers ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Network Function Virtualization Software Defined Networking 16 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem The new network operating system. Supports lifecycle management, global resource management, validation and authorization of new requests, policy management, system analytics, interface management Extends cloud computing and services to the edge of the network and into devices. Similar to cloud, fog provides network, compute, storage (caching) and services to end users. The distinguishing feature of Fog reduces latency & improves QoS resulting in a superior user experience ?5G may not deliver infinite bandwidth but it may well deliver a reasonable perception thereof? CN includes all categories of analytics (behavioral, predictive, etc.) & cross layer techniques applied to enable the more efficient and ?just in time? use network capacity ICN directly routes and delivers named pieces of content at the packet level of the network, enabling automatic and application-neutral caching in memory wherever it?s located in the network. The result? Improved mobility, security, privacy, resiliency, multicast support, etc. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fog Computing Edge Computing Contextual Networking SDN/NFV Orchestration Information Centric Networking 17 Wireless Subsystem The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Wireless Subsystem: and in the beginning there was 9.6kbps! Really quite amazing when you stop and think about it? 2G Narrowband Era 3G Broadband Era (for the few) 4G ?and for the massesIMT-2000 IMT-A 100,000X on GSM Phase 1 WCDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTE* LTE-A 2012+ GSM-EDGE 1990+ 9.6kbps GSM Phase 1 UL=118Kbps DL=236Kbps 384Kbps 2Mbps 5.7Mbps 14Mbps 11.5Mbps 42Mbps 50Mbps 150Mbps 500Mbps 1Gbps 0.17-0.33 (Bit/s/Hz) 0.51 2.88 12.5 16.32 30 200kHz 5MHz 5MHz 5MHz upto20MHz upto100MHz 300ms 250ms ~70ms ~30ms ~10ms ~5ms Peak Data Rate: Spectral Efficiency: Carrier Bandwidth: Latency (RTT): *LTE Category 4 ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Wireless Subsystem: the spectral efficiency path 5G will be about more of this: more MIMO, coding & interference reduction Historical Approach: Reduce Eb/No through fundamental generational advances 1G 2G 3G 10 1 0.1 0.01 0 10 20 30 40 Eb/No [dB] (Note: as bit rate rises Eb/No must decrease to maintain/improve SNR) Sp ec tr al E ffi ci en cy [b it/ s/ Hz ] Shannon limit Reuse=1 Current/Future Path Forward: Spatial multiplexing (MIMO), interference reduction and better coding gains 4G 2G 3G 10 1 0.1 0.01 0 10 20 30 40 Eb/No [dB] (Note: Further reductions in Eb/No very hard as theoretical limit approached) Sp ec tr al E ffi ci en cy [b it/ s/ Hz ] Shannon limit LTE PEAK RATE 2020 Wireless Subsystem: the small cell path 5G will be about more of this: ultra dense, mmW cells, D2D communications This journey has a few more stops to go! ? It has always been about small and smaller cells ? Todays systems are all a patchwork of coverage and capacity cells where ?capacity? is delivered by a heterogeneous mix of small cells ? This space is likely to be a key battleground in the next generation race (remember LTE versus WIMAX, place your bets now for 5G) ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Main driver of capacity growth last 50 years1 Microcell Femto Cellular Broadcast Picocell WiFi Nano 25x More Spectrum20x Radio Design 2000x Number of cells Higher Frequencies Proximity Services Network Densification 21 Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (1 of 2) In 5G this new spectrum will be allocated in <6GHz and >28GHz bands 5G will ?build in? new capabilities to better support more efficient usage models Energy efficiency will be a more significant driver in 5G than in any previous generation ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. More Flexible Spectrum Energy Efficiency New Spectrum Allocations 22 Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (2 of 2) 5G will add new dimensions including new categories of small cells, coop comms. 5G will blur definitions of access & backhaul delivering long promised wireless mesh 5G will leverage this tech across and deeper into its architecture and business models ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self Organization Backhaul Flexibility Cloudification Virtualization Heterogeneous Networking 23 Radio and Spectrum The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2424 5G a tale of two spectrums: Small, smaller and tiny cells A tale of two integrated wireless subsystems ? EVO: Below 6GHz with more aggregation of legacy bands, better coordination, and greater MIMO, etc. ? REVO: mmW with large chunks of contiguous bandwidth, dynamic meshing, massive MIMO, etc. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. WRC?15 ? Up to 100 MHz BW ? FDD/TDD ? Macro cells ? Long symbol duration ? Up to 200 MHz BW ? FDD/TDD ? Marco/small cells ? Long symbol duration ? Up to 1 GHz BW ? TDD (priority) ? Small cells ? Short symbol duration ? Up to 2 GHz BW ? TDD (priority) ? Small cells ? Short symbol duration Below 6 GHz Above 6 GHz WRC?19 70 - 80 GHz 60 - 70 GHz 20 - 50 GHz 2300 ? 6000 MHz 700 - 2300 MHz 1200 MHz spectrum (licensed & Unlicensed; Harmonized) Up to 5 GHz spectrum (mostly licensed; Not harmonized) Up to 24 GHz spectrum (mostly unlicensed; Harmonized) 25? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Millimeter Wave R&D Vision ? The Technology Solution for 5G Small Cell Access and Backhaul ? Capacity growth beyond what emerging Small Cell and Spectrum Sharing solutions can provide ? 100x ? 1000x growth! Next G eNB mmW backhaul mmW access Traditional Cellular Link Full mmH Architecture 5G AccessWireless Mesh Backhaul B E A D CG 2016 2020 2023 mmW Phase Array Radio and Antenna MAC & PHY Algorithms Earliest Commercialization Timeline Innovation and Core Technology 26? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. New and flexible spectrum usage ? New large spectrum at mmW frequencies ? Carrier Aggregation of discontinuous bands ? Dual band split user and control plane ? Joint multi-RATs management ? Cognitive techniques (Spectrum Sensing) Novel duplexing schemes ? Joint TDD-FDD operation ? Dynamic TDD ? Single channel full duplexing Advanced antenna and multi-site technologies ? 3D-beamforming and MU-MIMO ? Active Antenna System (AAS) ? Massive MIMO ? Network MIMO (Adv. CoMP) Advanced waveforms and multiple access ? More flexible waveforms than pure OFDM (e.g. RBF- OFDM; FBMC; etc.) ? Non-orthogonal multiple access ? Broader set of modulation and coding schemes ? Advanced interference coordination and cancellation techniques ? Flexible functional split (virtualization / cloudification) ? Flexible backhauling and joint optimization with access 5G Air Interface: shaping the new four letter acronym 27 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem Alternatives to pure OFDM such as RBF-OFDM, FBMC, GFDM, and UFMC, are motivated for better spectrum containment and asynchronous (non-orthogonal) sharing scenarios in 5G. The use of a very large number of antennas is proposed as a means to achieve very high throughput and spectral efficiency per area. Both co- located and distributed architectures are envisaged, with co-located massive MIMO particularly appealing to high frequency bands (thanks to the narrow beams and small form factor). Millimeter Wave spectrum (20-80GHz) offers large chunks (up to 2GHz) of contiguous bandwidth, which makes it suitable for ultra-high throughput and low latency scenarios. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Advanced MIMO Advanced waveforms Millimeter Wave 28 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem Thanks to recent advances in self-interference cancellation, single channel full duplex (also known as simultaneous transmission and reception - STR) is being considered. It provides up to 2x link spectral efficiency gain, reduced air interface latency, and significantly improved MAC. Carrier Aggregation of discontinuous bands could allow wider bandwidth to be used and hence significantly increase the system capacity. This technology is already adopted in LTE-A, though extensions are further expected in 5G, including cognitive capabilities (e.g. spectrum sensing, database access, etc.) Flexible and high capacity backhaul integrating multiple technologies (e.g. optical, wireless including mmW) is necessary to cope with the technology trends for 5G radio interface. Multi-technology resources pooling, dynamic topology (re)formation (e.g. dynamic meshing), and efficient context-aware resource scheduling are key features. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Carrier Aggregation of discontinuous bands Single channel full duplexing Flexible and high capacity backhaul 29 InterDigital 5G Vision Mobile World Congress 2015 ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 ICN=Information Centric Networking, SDN=Software Defined Networking, NFV=Network Function Virtualization, D2D=Device to Device Comms InterDigital 5G Vision: The Living Network Vision is realized IMMERSIVE VIDEO TACTILE INTERNET M2M IOT MISSION CRITICAL VIRTUALIZATION LAYER NETWORK OS (ORCHESTRATION LAYER) ANALYTICS POLICY CONTENT MANAGEMENT MULTI TENANCY NEW ROUTING Enabled by the 5G programmable Infrastructure Driven by a diverse array of 5G Services Powered by a 5G virtual resource pool MacroCell Resource Pool: SmallCell Resource Pool: Cloud RAN Processing Remote Radios Mobile Relays Satellite Optical Region Cache Units Ultra Dense Cells WiFi Evolution mmW Hotspots D2D Comms Deep Edge Compute ICN SDN NFV THE LIVING NETWORK Smart TRANSPORT Smart ENERGY Smart HEALTH Smart HOMES Smart CITIES Sensors + Things: Providing essential driving context (the big data!) THE LIVING NETWORK Core Wireless Tech. ? New Waveforms ? Massive MIMO ? Flexible Spectrum ? Multi-RAT Aggregate ? Mesh Networking ? Novel Duplexing ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3131 Path to 5G Overview Mobile World Congress 2015 ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3232 So where are we with 5G? Further along than you might think ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3333 Drivers & Requirements: the most diverse in any generation! 8K Ultra High Definition will be available around 2020 driving 2600x traffic of 2010 50 Billion+ things across a dozen industries, unsynchronized, all talking at the same time Real time interaction with environments is crucial to engagement of human beings New levels of life interactive experiences shaping new wireless requirements ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The internet of everything (and an awful lot of everything!) Tactile internet Video, video & more video! Mission critical apps 4G purposed mainly for VIDEO? 5G video ++ ? IoE ? TACTILE internet ? mission critical IMT-2020 34 Drivers & Requirements: gathering international consensus 4G purposed mainly for VIDEO? 5G video ++ ? IoE ? TACTILE internet ? mission critical IMT-2020 LTE-A LTE 50Mbps 150Mbps 500Mbps 1Gbps 16.32 30 upto20MHz upto100MHz ~10ms ~5ms Peak Data Rate: Spectral Efficiency: Carrier Bandwidth: Latency (RTT): <1millisecond latency (when needed) 10-50Gbps peak data rates 90% Energy reduction per service 100-500MHz Carrier Bandwidth Higher Density: Millions of connections per km2 Higher Traffic Volume: 1-10 Tbps per km2 Rapid Service Creation (from days to minutes) Sustainable Total Cost of Owner for all players User Definable Security & Privacy *Key requirements harmonized & agreed in ITU-R WP5D ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3535 The Players: organized well across industry and academia 5G is in very real discussion & is expanding across the international stage ? Horizon 2020 ? 5GPPP Program (InterDigital Europe) ? EU FP7 Program ? METIS, 5GNOW, MAMMOET, etc. ? 5G Innovation Center (5GIC) ? University of Surrey ? Korean 5G Forum Initiative, Korea (InterDigital Asia) ? IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group, China ? ARIB 2020 & Beyond Ad Hoc Group, Japan ? Leading 5G Universities: NYU, MIT, Berkeley, Stanford ? Various NSF Projects: FIA Program, Xdensification ? Intel Strategic Research Alliance, Qualcomm Institute ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Asia Americas Europe International 36 5G Roadmap: with key international event drivers 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Winter Olympics: KOREA Summer Olympics: Japan FIFA World Cup: Quatar WRC-15 InterDigital Vision 2020, Creating the Living Network, 5G? Rel 12 Rel 13 Rel 14 Rel 15 Rel 16 WRC-19 802.11ax - 6G Wi-Fi! 802.11ax Standard. (<6GHz) NG60 SG WiGig3.0 - 6G Wi-Fi! WiGig2.0 Standard 5G Studies STANDARDIZATION WAVE 1 (<6GHz) 5G PRODUCTS & DEPLOYMENT START! Standardization continues? LTE-B LTE-C Vision Requirements Proposals 5G Research, Prototyping, Trials (5GPPP, 5G Forum, etc.) ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3737 The Path to 5G A Path Long Travelled ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3838 Services Subsystem The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39 Services: the evolution to the smarter, living network 5G will deliver next level of experience and enabling business models Wave 1 (Voice) Wave 2 (Visual) 5G:The Living Network New services, new business models Glory days of GSM Integrated telephony applications IMS promises Walled garden worries! Rise of the OTT A new status quo Rise of the mobile internet The video experience The living experience ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4040 What needs to happen ? New broad innovation (in 4G & 5G) in the area of networking technology to enable flexible models that may be equitably leveraged by both operators and OTT ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Over the Top Players want? ? Access to subscriber information including phone types, history, etc. ? Real time knowledge of network conditions & level of quality of service ? Ability to manage the quality of service on application, user basis Services: business models must and will change in 5G What Mobile Operators want? ? Sell new services and key assets such as quality of service, status, etc. ? Monetize secure and scalable XaaS hosting services for OTT customers ? Grow their business? in a predictable & sustainable way enabling 5G potential 5G may simply not happen unless a ?happy? consensus is reached here? 4141 Services: the IoE New Frontier but a very similar story ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ? A wealth of rich data remains closed behind legacy and highly fragmented silos common today across most vertical industries (e.g. transport, energy) ? The opening of this data in an economical way will enable a leap in context awareness that will serve to drive the deep fabric of 5G network operation Connectivity Service/App. Enablement Managed Data Devices Devices (1)Yesterday (2)Today (3)Tomorrow Where the many verticals are stalled today Management Services Connectivity M2M ? IoE Evolution Connectivity Devices Management Services 4242 Network Subsystem The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43 Th e In te rn et P ro to co l ? Ru bi co n? Network: and in the beginning there was ?virtualization? 5G will be about more of this (deeper virtualization, broader usage of SDN) First wave of virtualization and the second the third & not last NFV : Separate SERVICE logic from HW Platform SDN: Separate CONTROL and DATA planes Emergence of NFV and SDN Technology NFV=Network Function Virtualization, SDN=Software Defined Networking Circuit Switching all IP Break up of Bell system in USA 1982 Mid 80?s Mid 90?s+ Mid/Late 00?s+ Emergence of Intelligent Networking (SS#7/AIN) STEP1 : Separate SERVICE logic from switching Infrastructure ?giving us 800#, voicemail, Caller ID and GSM! STEP2 : Separate CONTROL and DATA planes (Commodity Hardware) Emergence of Soft Switch Technology (MGCP, MEGACO, SIP) ?the era of Convergence ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4444 Network Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow 5G will leverage this tech across and deeper into its architecture and business models 5G requirements will push ?caching? deeper into both the network & wireless subsystems 5G ? infinite bandwidth but it may deliver a perception of it through contextualization ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Deep Content & Information Management Contextualization Cloudification Virtualization 4545 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem SDN is an approach to networking in which routing control is decoupled from the physical infrastructure enabling a networking fabric across multi-vendor equipment NFV moves network services out of dedicated hardware devices into software. Functions that in the past required specialized hardware devices can now be performed on standard x86 servers ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Network Function Virtualization Software Defined Networking 4646 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem The new network operating system. Supports lifecycle management, global resource management, validation and authorization of new requests, policy management, system analytics, interface management Extends cloud computing and services to the edge of the network and into devices. Similar to cloud, fog provides network, compute, storage (caching) and services to end users. The distinguishing feature of Fog reduces latency & improves QoS resulting in a superior user experience ?5G may not deliver infinite bandwidth but it may well deliver a reasonable perception thereof? CN includes all categories of analytics (behavioral, predictive, etc.) & cross layer techniques applied to enable the more efficient and ?just in time? use network capacity ICN directly routes and delivers named pieces of content at the packet level of the network, enabling automatic and application-neutral caching in memory wherever it?s located in the network. The result? Improved mobility, security, privacy, resiliency, multicast support, etc. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fog Computing Edge Computing Contextual Networking SDN/NFV Orchestration Information Centric Networking 4747 Wireless Subsystem The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 48 Wireless Subsystem: and in the beginning there was 9.6kbps! Really quite amazing when you stop and think about it? 2G Narrowband Era 3G Broadband Era (for the few) 4G ?and for the massesIMT-2000 IMT-A 100,000X on GSM Phase 1 WCDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTE* LTE-A 2012+ GSM-EDGE 1990+ 9.6kbps GSM Phase 1 UL=118Kbps DL=236Kbps 384Kbps 2Mbps 5.7Mbps 14Mbps 11.5Mbps 42Mbps 50Mbps 150Mbps 500Mbps 1Gbps 0.17-0.33 (Bit/s/Hz) 0.51 2.88 12.5 16.32 30 200kHz 5MHz 5MHz 5MHz upto20MHz upto100MHz 300ms 250ms ~70ms ~30ms ~10ms ~5ms Peak Data Rate: Spectral Efficiency: Carrier Bandwidth: Latency (RTT): *LTE Category 4 ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4949? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Wireless Subsystem: the spectral efficiency path 5G will be about more of this: more MIMO, coding & interference reduction Historical Approach: Reduce Eb/No through fundamental generational advances 1G 2G 3G 10 1 0.1 0.01 0 10 20 30 40 Eb/No [dB] (Note: as bit rate rises Eb/No must decrease to maintain/improve SNR) Sp ec tr al E ffi ci en cy [b it/ s/ Hz ] Shannon limit Reuse=1 Current/Future Path Forward: Spatial multiplexing (MIMO), interference reduction and better coding gains 4G 2G 3G 10 1 0.1 0.01 0 10 20 30 40 Eb/No [dB] (Note: Further reductions in Eb/No very hard as theoretical limit approached) Sp ec tr al E ffi ci en cy [b it/ s/ Hz ] Shannon limit LTE PEAK RATE 5050 Wireless Subsystem: the small cell path 5G will be about more of this: ultra dense, mmW cells, D2D communications This journey has a few more stops to go! ? It has always been about small and smaller cells ? Todays systems are all a patchwork of coverage and capacity cells where ?capacity? is delivered by a heterogeneous mix of small cells ? This space is likely to be a key battleground in the next generation race (remember LTE versus WIMAX, place your bets now for 5G) ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Main driver of capacity growth last 50 years1 Microcell Femto Cellular Broadcast Picocell WiFi Nano 25x More Spectrum20x Radio Design 2000x Number of cells Higher Frequencies Proximity Services Network Densification 5151 Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (1 of 2) In 5G this new spectrum will be allocated in <6GHz and >28GHz bands 5G will ?build in? new capabilities to better support more efficient usage models Energy efficiency will be a more significant driver in 5G than in any previous generation ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. More Flexible Spectrum Energy Efficiency New Spectrum Allocations 5252 Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (2 of 2) 5G will add new dimensions including new categories of small cells, coop comms. 5G will blur definitions of access & backhaul delivering long promised wireless mesh 5G will leverage this tech across and deeper into its architecture and business models ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self Organization Backhaul Flexibility Cloudification Virtualization Heterogeneous Networking 5353 Radio and Spectrum The Path to 5G ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5454 5G a tale of two spectrums: Small, smaller and tiny cells A tale of two integrated wireless subsystems ? EVO: Below 6GHz with more aggregation of legacy bands, better coordination, and greater MIMO, etc. ? REVO: mmW with large chunks of contiguous bandwidth, dynamic meshing, massive MIMO, etc. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. WRC?15 ? Up to 100 MHz BW ? FDD/TDD ? Macro cells ? Long symbol duration ? Up to 200 MHz BW ? FDD/TDD ? Marco/small cells ? Long symbol duration ? Up to 1 GHz BW ? TDD (priority) ? Small cells ? Short symbol duration ? Up to 2 GHz BW ? TDD (priority) ? Small cells ? Short symbol duration Below 6 GHz Above 6 GHz WRC?19 70 - 80 GHz 60 - 70 GHz 20 - 50 GHz 2300 ? 6000 MHz 700 - 2300 MHz 1200 MHz spectrum (licensed & Unlicensed; Harmonized) Up to 5 GHz spectrum (mostly licensed; Not harmonized) Up to 24 GHz spectrum (mostly unlicensed; Harmonized) 5555? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Millimeter Wave R&D Vision ? The Technology Solution for 5G Small Cell Access and Backhaul ? Capacity growth beyond what emerging Small Cell and Spectrum Sharing solutions can provide ? 100x ? 1000x growth! Next G eNB mmW backhaul mmW access Traditional Cellular Link Full mmH Architecture 5G AccessWireless Mesh Backhaul B E A D CG 2016 2020 2023 mmW Phase Array Radio and Antenna MAC & PHY Algorithms Earliest Commercialization Timeline Innovation and Core Technology 5656? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. New and flexible spectrum usage ? New large spectrum at mmW frequencies ? Carrier Aggregation of discontinuous bands ? Dual band split user and control plane ? Joint multi-RATs management ? Cognitive techniques (Spectrum Sensing) Novel duplexing schemes ? Joint TDD-FDD operation ? Dynamic TDD ? Single channel full duplexing Advanced antenna and multi-site technologies ? 3D-beamforming and MU-MIMO ? Active Antenna System (AAS) ? Massive MIMO ? Network MIMO (Adv. CoMP) Advanced waveforms and multiple access ? More flexible waveforms than pure OFDM (e.g. RBF- OFDM; FBMC; etc.) ? Non-orthogonal multiple access ? Broader set of modulation and coding schemes ? Advanced interference coordination and cancellation techniques ? Flexible functional split (virtualization / cloudification) ? Flexible backhauling and joint optimization with access 5G Air Interface: shaping the new four letter acronym 5757 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem Alternatives to pure OFDM such as RBF-OFDM, FBMC, GFDM, and UFMC, are motivated for better spectrum containment and asynchronous (non-orthogonal) sharing scenarios in 5G. The use of a very large number of antennas is proposed as a means to achieve very high throughput and spectral efficiency per area. Both co- located and distributed architectures are envisaged, with co-located massive MIMO particularly appealing to high frequency bands (thanks to the narrow beams and small form factor). Millimeter Wave spectrum (20-80GHz) offers large chunks (up to 2GHz) of contiguous bandwidth, which makes it suitable for ultra-high throughput and low latency scenarios. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Advanced MIMO Advanced waveforms Millimeter Wave 5858 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem Thanks to recent advances in self-interference cancellation, single channel full duplex (also known as simultaneous transmission and reception - STR) is being considered. It provides up to 2x link spectral efficiency gain, reduced air interface latency, and significantly improved MAC. Carrier Aggregation of discontinuous bands could allow wider bandwidth to be used and hence significantly increase the system capacity. This technology is already adopted in LTE-A, though extensions are further expected in 5G, including cognitive capabilities (e.g. spectrum sensing, database access, etc.) Flexible and high capacity backhaul integrating multiple technologies (e.g. optical, wireless including mmW) is necessary to cope with the technology trends for 5G radio interface. Multi-technology resources pooling, dynamic topology (re)formation (e.g. dynamic meshing), and efficient context-aware resource scheduling are key features. ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Carrier Aggregation of discontinuous bands Single channel full duplexing Flexible and high capacity backhaul 5959 InterDigital 5G Vision Mobile World Congress 2015 ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 60 ICN=Information Centric Networking, SDN=Software Defined Networking, NFV=Network Function Virtualization, D2D=Device to Device Comms InterDigital 5G Vision: The Living Network Vision is realized IMMERSIVE VIDEO TACTILE INTERNET M2M IOT MISSION CRITICAL VIRTUALIZATION LAYER NETWORK OS (ORCHESTRATION LAYER) ANALYTICS POLICY CONTENT MANAGEMENT MULTI TENANCY NEW ROUTING Enabled by the 5G programmable Infrastructure Driven by a diverse array of 5G Services Powered by a 5G virtual resource pool MacroCell Resource Pool: SmallCell Resource Pool: Cloud RAN Processing Remote Radios Mobile Relays Satellite Optical Region Cache Units Ultra Dense Cells WiFi Evolution mmW Hotspots D2D Comms Deep Edge Compute ICN SDN NFV THE LIVING NETWORK Smart TRANSPORT Smart ENERGY Smart HEALTH Smart HOMES Smart CITIES Sensors + Things: Providing essential driving context (the big data!) THE LIVING NETWORK Core Wireless Tech. ? New Waveforms ? Massive MIMO ? Flexible Spectrum ? Multi-RAT Aggregate ? Mesh Networking ? Novel Duplexing ? 2015 InterDigital, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ?Path to 5G Overview ?Mobile World Congress 2015? ?So where are we ?with 5G? ??Further along than ?you might think? Drivers & Requirements: the most diverse in any generation! Drivers & Requirements: gathering international consensus The Players: organized well across industry and academia?5G is in very real discussion & is expanding across the international stage? 5G Roadmap: with key international event drivers ?The Path to 5G?A Path Long Travelled? ?Services Subsystem?The Path to 5G? Services: the evolution to the smarter, living network?5G will deliver next level of experience and enabling business models? Slide Number 10 Services: the IoE New Frontier but a very similar story??? ?Network Subsystem?The Path to 5G? Network: and in the beginning there was ?virtualization??5G will be about more of this (deeper virtualization, broader usage of SDN)? Network Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem ?Wireless Subsystem?The Path to 5G? Wireless Subsystem: and in the beginning there was 9.6kbps! Wireless Subsystem: the spectral efficiency path?5G will be about more of this: more MIMO, coding & interference reduction?? Slide Number 20 Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (1 of 2) Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (2 of 2) ?Radio and Spectrum?The Path to 5G? Slide Number 24 Millimeter Wave R&D Vision 5G Air Interface: shaping the new four letter acronym 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem ?InterDigital 5G Vision?Mobile World Congress 2015? Slide Number 30 ?Path to 5G Overview ?Mobile World Congress 2015? ?So where are we ?with 5G? ??Further along than ?you might think? Drivers & Requirements: the most diverse in any generation! Drivers & Requirements: gathering international consensus The Players: organized well across industry and academia?5G is in very real discussion & is expanding across the international stage? 5G Roadmap: with key international event drivers ?The Path to 5G?A Path Long Travelled? ?Services Subsystem?The Path to 5G? Services: the evolution to the smarter, living network?5G will deliver next level of experience and enabling business models? Slide Number 40 Services: the IoE New Frontier but a very similar story??? ?Network Subsystem?The Path to 5G? Network: and in the beginning there was ?virtualization??5G will be about more of this (deeper virtualization, broader usage of SDN)? Network Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem 5G Emerging Technologies in the network subsystem ?Wireless Subsystem?The Path to 5G? Wireless Subsystem: and in the beginning there was 9.6kbps! Wireless Subsystem: the spectral efficiency path?5G will be about more of this: more MIMO, coding & interference reduction?? Slide Number 50 Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (1 of 2) Wireless Subsystem: other key themes of today that will continue to shape the 5G world of tomorrow (2 of 2) ?Radio and Spectrum?The Path to 5G? Slide Number 54 Millimeter Wave R&D Vision 5G Air Interface: shaping the new four letter acronym 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem 5G Emerging Technologies in the wireless subsystem ?InterDigital 5G Vision?Mobile World Congress 2015? Slide Number 60