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Architecting Tomorrow's Smart Cities
White Paper / Jun 2015 / IoT, M2M, Smart City, Wi-Fi

The Smart City concept is predicted to provide safer, more efficient and environmentally conscious living corridors for a large and growing urban population. The migration of a city’s energy grid, transportation system, and more to efficient platforms that are interconnected is a tremendously complex task that will require many partnerships and further development of wireless networks.

However, according to experts, there are some early developments in the Smart City arena that are promising. This ebook, produced by FierceWireless and sponsored by InterDigital, provides a look at how mobile technology combined with M2M and IoT technology will transform the cities of the future and create a more sustainable lifestyle.

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Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofMay 2015 share: 2 Editor?s Note 3 Paving the Way for Next- Generation Transportation 6 Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time 7 Powering the Smart City of the Future 11 Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision 14 Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues Thank you to our sponsors: Photo credit: Andrew Nash, Flickr Santander, Spain ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: Editor?s Note By Sue Marek Editor-in-Chief /// FierceWireless The vision of the smart city of tomorrow holds an enormous amount of promise. Picture a densely populated city that is safer, more efficient and much more environmentally conscious than today?s urban corridors. But migrating a city?s energy grid, transportation system, water supply and more to much more efficient platforms that are interconnected is an extremely complex undertaking that requires the cooperation of many different players. And figuring out how to do this in a way that is financially viable is even more difficult. Nevertheless, experts say that there are some early developments in the smart city arena that are promising. According to a 2014 report from IHS Technology, private-public partnerships are going to be a necessity when deploying smart city initiatives. Of course, wireless operators believe that the wireless network will be the underlying framework for many of these smart city platforms. But the wireless network of the future will have to be much more sophisticated than today and include more than just cellular technology. In fact, most experts believe that the wireless network framework of tomorrow will include a mixture of cellular, Wi-Fi, short range sensors, M2M communications and more. These various technologies will be necessary in order to provide the type of seamless connectivity that is necessary to deliver mission-critical communications. But seamless connectivity is only the beginning. Potentially, wireless networks of tomorrow will need to support simple devices with low data rates as well as much more bandwidth intensive devices that will require much higher speed. In this ebook from FierceWireless, we look at how mobile technology combined with machine to machine (M2M) technology will transform the cities of the future and create a more sustainable lifestyle. n ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation The connected car will play a vital role in easing traffic congestion, lessening pollution and increasing safety. Which helps explain why it has become one of the most important battlegrounds in the Internet of Things. By Colin Gibbs The Internet of Things is a massive phenomenon that has expanded to touch a wide variety of vertical markets. And one of the biggest battlegrounds is the connected car, which promises to transform the way we move from place to place in smart cities and beyond. Auto makers, operating system providers, carriers and manufacturers of mobile devices all are vying to position themselves at the center of connected car ecosystems that are still in their infancy. ?There are two distinct models? for the connected car, said Derek Kerton principal analyst of The Kerton Group, ?and there are powerful camps pushing either model through.? In the first model, the car?s built-in (or after-market) technology serves as the hub that connects various components; in the second, the smartphone ? and the operating system that powers it -- is the centerpiece. So mobile heavyweights such as Apple, Google, Samsung and the major carriers are competing against each other as well as against auto manufacturers. Smartphone as connected car hub Consumers seem to be leaning toward the smartphone- based model largely in these early days because they?ve grown accustomed to using mobile apps for entertainment, navigation and other purposes. But that model doesn?t help app developers take advantage of some of the functionality and features a car-based system can offer ? things like the car battery and sound system, sophisticated controls on the steering wheel, much larger screens and external GPS antennas that provide more accurate location information. Positioning the smartphone as the hub of a connected car brings its own advantages, however. Many consumers use their devices as their primary way of accessing vital information such as calendar and contacts, and mobile navigation apps such as Waze are often superior to car-based systems. But car makers have some big advantages, Kerton noted: They?re ultimately responsible for the safety of ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: >> Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation the vehicles they make, which gives them some legal leverage to play the role of gatekeeper for what goes into the car. Additionally, they install the sensors and cameras that are at the heart of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that control functions such as adoptive cruise control and automatic braking ? features that may not require a smartphone connection at all. Connected car systems generally have both a stand-alone embedded app platform as well as an integrated platform for smartphone apps, and GM?s move last year to embrace Android Auto and Apple CarPlay may indicate the two ecosystems will increasingly overlap. But wireless carriers are likely to once again find themselves playing the relatively small role of simply providing connectivity. ?Carriers want to be the entire back end, but car makers have their own ideas about that. They want to manage the back end,? said Roger Lanctot, associate director of Strategy Analytics? Global Automotive Practice. ?It?s been hard for carriers to play an added-value kind of a role.? Carriers that can provide top-notch coverage and service, and that can leverage Voice over LTE and HD Voice, may be able to maximize their role in the value chain, Lanctot said. Beyond single-vehicle systems The first connected cars came to market nearly ten years ago in the form of General Motors? OnStar-enabled autos, which issued automated crash notifications in the form of phone calls via an onboard modem. In recent years, common telematics systems have expanded to include streaming media, navigation, roadside assistance and support for some smartphone apps, among other things; many also offer a head-up display projected on the windshield. And as the number of features has grown, so have the options for connectivity: AT&T powers most built-in systems in North America, and Verizon Wireless ? which provides connectivity for Hyundai?s Blue Link system ? recently introduced an after-market product that can be installed on most cars manufactured in the past 20 years. Car makers are also beginning to leverage LTE for intra-vehicle and vehicle- to-vehicle communication, Lanctot said, and some have begun to issue software updates via Wi-Fi or over the air through cellular connections. Multiple connections and technologies are laying the foundation for a variety of scenarios that can increase safety, ease congestion and minimize pollution. Some of the most compelling of these use cases include: ? Trucking companies are hoping to use a combination of radar, GPS and other wireless solutions to enable ?platooning,? whereby multiple trucks automatically remain several meters apart at a precise distance as they travel. The concept, which uses both a human driver and computers, is aimed at increasing safety as well as lowering fuel costs by reducing the amount of ?Carriers want to be the entire back end, but car makers have their own ideas about that. They want to manage the back end.? ROGER LANCTOT, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF STRATEGY ANALYTICS? GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE PRACTICE ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: >> Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation wind drag on each truck. Once it gains traction among transportation companies, platooning could conceivably expand to private users who opt to join convoys. ? Volvo is partnering with Ericsson and the sporting goods manufacturer POC to develop bicycle helmets that communicate with its connected cars. The feature uses popular bicycling apps and the Volvo cloud to alert both parties of potential collisions. The driver is made aware of the cyclist?s location through the car?s head-up display, while the cyclist is warned through a helmet- mounted alert light. ? A 2.2-mile long limited-access road in Montgomery County, Va., is being used as a testing track for a variety of next-generation transportation technologies and applications. The Virginia Smart Road features in-pavement sensors that can measure moisture, temperature, vibration and strain, and allows researchers to create snow, fog and other weather conditions. The road is operated and maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation and is slated to be extended to 5.7 miles eventually. ? Ford is planning to sell cars that can read traffic signs and adjust the speed automatically according to speed limits, and BMW is developing a technology that will deliver information posted on variable message signs and deliver it directly to a display on the car?s dashboard. And the Utah Department of Transportation is experimenting with sensors embedded in traffic signals and pavement to gather data that can be used to ease congestion. ?You?re going to see more and more communication from the roadside to the car, and between cars, using smartphones or embedded modems,? Lanctot said. ?Most cars will have both.? The connected car is still very much in its early days, and many of its features and components ? including the autonomous car ? are years away from fully coming to market. But the business models and partnerships that will lay the foundation for the industry?s growth are being forged today. Carriers, OS providers and mobile app developers are moving aggressively to ensure they play a part in that growth. n ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Sponsored Content Many market research reports predict large growth in the Smart Cities arena whether by city numbers, annual investments in the Smart City projects or the number of the overall connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices. What is even more interesting is that the Smart City concept covers such a wide range of solutions focused on providing services that improve the lives of city inhabitants. Based on the application, Smart Cities market can be segmented into Smart Transport, Smart Energy, Smart Healthcare, Smart Homes and Buildings, etc. Furthermore, the world?s population that lives in an urban environment is expected to grow substantially, while there is also a large aging population. With these facts at hand, the cities that we live in will need to dramatically change and improve to create a more sustainable future for today and future generations. With the constant evolution of the Machine to Machine (M2M) and IoT space, many of the technical constraints are becoming less of a challenge. However, with Smart Cities specifically, challenges are often more fundamental in nature. For example, all cities are unique. As pointed out by Machina Research in their recent report on ?Understanding the Drivers Behind Smart Cities?, there are certain Smart City services and applications that are ?standard? and portable, but in many cases implementations will need to be adjusted according to each city?s requirement. A lot will depend on whether the city is located in a developed or a developing country, or the actual size and type of the city. However, what is encouraging is that across highly developed countries like South Korea or more developing countries like China, it is not a matter of if, but when Smart City initiatives will launch. While many view Smart Cities as the long tail of the growing M2M and IoT market due to such versatility of applications, cities themselves, and sometimes political or regulator aspects, there is a clear need to manage the quality of life of a large and growing urban population. This is why many cities have started experimenting with the Smart City concepts. It is difficult to predict how smart our cities will become 5, 10, 20 years from now, but InterDigital, along with its partners, is excited to take on the challenge whether it is to help with interoperability, cross-vertical cooperation, standardization, or simply making each one of us a little more efficient, healthier and faster - one Smart City at a time. Currently, InterDigital is actively taking on challenges in the Smart Cities arena with its oneMPOWERTM platform, the most mature oneM2MTM standards-based application enablement platform in the industry today. The company is already defining new frontiers on an industry-wide level as well, for example with the United Kingdom oneTRANSPORTTM initiative. Visit www.interdigital.com to learn more about InterDigital?s M2M / IoT solutions. n Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at a Time By Vanja Subotic, Senior Product Manager, InterDigital ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: Powering the Smart City of the Future City managers and utility companies are looking at smart meters to reduce costs and detect power outages. By Jason Bovberg Energy efficiency is fundamental to the smart city concept. Some cities are already transforming their energy grid, some are looking into solutions, and some are still a long way off. Whereas London and San Francisco are retrofitting residential and commercial buildings to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and introducing vehicle-charging mechanisms, Dubai and Singapore are more concerned with transportation, parking, and trash removal. Every city has a different starting point, but the energy grid is evolving in some capacity in every potential smart city. The most basic approach to viewing smart cities is looking at the different products and services that make up the city. Just as the smart home contains individual smart products, the smart city contains smart street lights, smart parking meters, smart trash-removal systems, smart transportation systems, and smart utility systems (e.g., water, waste water, gas, electricity). Also just like a smart home, the infrastructure that makes up a smart city is more than just a collection of individual products. ?Each of these individual verticals has huge potential to add connectivity-enabled, value-added services that improve functionality, reduce cost, and improve revenue,? said Tom Kerber, smart home analyst at Parks Associates. Energy Opportunities Today Opportunities for integration aren?t limited to connecting the various parts of the city infrastructure. ?Connectivity ?Connectivity enables the connection of the infrastructure to other connected products and services.? TOM KERBER, SMART HOME ANALYST AT PARKS ASSOCIATES ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: >> Powering the Smart City of the Future enables the connection of the infrastructure to other connected products and services,? Kerber said. ?Smart products in the home that are integrated into the demand-management platform operated by the local utility is a current example of a broader view of connectivity.? The opportunities for connecting city services with other industries operating within the city is nearly endless. Connecting with smart products, local retailers, and service providers will enable many new business models to enhance energy usage for everyone involved in the partnership. ?Cities can also significantly improve both their efficiency and the level of service they offer to their residents by using digital technology to measure, analyze, and manage their energy use in real-time,? said Olivier Pauzet, vice president of market strategy at Sierra Wireless. An example of this kind of digital tech is connected lighting management systems, which allows city administrators to remotely control light fixtures, regulate energy use, and monitor the status of each light. The City of Los Angeles recently announced that it would implement a Philips system that will connect each light point to a web-based system. The software provides the current lighting status, auto-notifies administrators of faults, and produces accurate information about the energy usage of each street light. Such a system can provide significant energy savings to municipal customers: LED lighting combined with intelligent controls can deliver savings of up to 80 percent. An interesting development for current and future smart cities is the impulse to find ways to reduce power consumption for some of the things they pay for directly. ?The most obvious example goes back to street lighting,? said Matt Hatton, founder of Machina Research. ?In some cities, street lighting accounts for 40 percent of total expenditures, and there are savings of upwards of 50 percent to be made from implementing new LED lighting along with connected capabilities, which allows for adaptive lighting.? However, according to Hatton, most cities aren?t really responsible for their energy grids. ?It?s typically the utilities, which are looking first and foremost at ways of reducing losses,? he said. ?These can be technical losses, which can be as high as 50 percent, and higher in some instances. They?re also interested in reducing ?non- technical? losses such as fraud, and they?re implementing smart meters to do that. Also, lots of smart-meter deployments are regulatory-driven, aimed at reducing electricity usage, or load balancing?shifting usage to off- peak times.? ?Cities can also significantly improve both their efficiency and the level of service they offer to their residents by using digital technology to measure, analyze, and manage their energy use in real-time.? OLIVIER PAUZET, VICE PRESIDENT OF MARKET STRATEGY AT SIERRA WIRELESS ? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: >> Powering the Smart City of the Future The Future of Energy At the edge of the smart grid, advanced residential meters with communication modules can offer better service, including more detailed data collection and on- demand reads. ?With two-way cellular or mesh network capabilities,? Pauzet said, ?utilities have the real-time data they need to improve load-balancing and power management.? These types of solutions can be set up to allow businesses and consumers to monitor how much electricity they use, when they use it, and how much it costs, which in turn helps improve behaviors around power consumption and conservation. Beyond the utility, the monitoring of power transmission lines, substations, and distributed networks is advancing rapidly. ?Many utilities are finding that deploying 2G, 3G, and 4G wireless connectivity in their metering, monitoring, and surveillance equipment is an easier, more reliable solution than ever before,? Pauzet said. Smart grid technologies can detect and isolate power outages, often containing them before they become large-scale blackouts. ?They also enable distributed power generation (such as small hydro, biomass, or solar panels installed on individual houses), which is critical for the success of alternative, renewable energy sources and reducing overall system load,? Pauzet added. In the end, these technologies will result in improved service levels for customers, lower-cost power, enhanced capital management, and better use of the underlying resource. The integration of distributed energy resources creates a great opportunity and a huge challenge for the grid. ?Local utilities will need to transform themselves to operate the local distribution network in a similar way that the ISO operates the transmission grid today,? Kerber said. ?Adopting a distribution system operator model ensures that the grid will remain stable as the market moves from central to distributed generation. Distributed generation also creates an opportunity behind the meter.? As smart products continue to enter homes in larger numbers, local energy management systems will incorporate storage, choreograph connected loads, and optimize energy efficiency. Zero Loss According to Kiva Allgood, Qualcomm?s senior director of global market development, one of the great visions of the smart city is to evolve toward a zero-loss system. ?A lot of cities don?t have consistent power,? she said. ?Wired tech makes things difficult, but thanks to wireless/cellular coverage with batteries in current systems, that tech has come so far that we can start looking at zero-loss concepts. It?s not difficult, and the technology exists today.? n ?In some cities, street lighting accounts for 40 percent of total expenditures, and there are savings of upwards of 50 percent to be made from implementing new LED lighting along with connected capabilities, which allows for adaptive lighting.? MATT HATTON, FOUNDER OF MACHINA RESEARCH ?? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Sponsored Content oneMPOWERTM Platform for Smart Cities www.interdigital.com InterDigital?s oneMPOWER platform provides M2M/IoT application enabling services that include connectivity, device, data, and transaction management resulting in faster time-to-market, scalable application development and lower operation costs. Both scalable and secure horizontal M2M/IoT solution, it is the most mature oneM2M standards-based platform in the industry today. ?? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision High-capacity wireless networks will include macrocells, microcells, Wi-Fi and more. By Jason Bovberg When considering the smart city vision, one of the obvious features is the wireless networking framework that will both enable smooth communication among citizens and bolster the technological infrastructure. Many experts envision a sophisticated network that not only includes cellular but also Wi-Fi, short range sensors, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications, and more. ?The goal of the networked society is that coverage is universal for citizens,? said Anders Svensson, head of 4G solutions, Ericsson North America, ?so that the members of that society can get mobile broadband access.? But a further goal is communication within the smart city?s technology. ?The smart city of the future must and will have citywide connectivity for both people and devices (such as sensors),? said Jesse Berst, chairman of the Smart Cities Council. ?The networked society we are now entering is inclusive, equitable, and empowering,? Svensson added. On one hand, that means building high-capacity networks, including large macro cells that provide wide coverage and smaller micro cells that can fill in where buildings or tunnels block radio connectivity?as well as complementary Wi-Fi hotspots in public areas for alternate access. On the other hand, the empowered smart city will also be characterized by smart wireless communication built into the underlying infrastructure. ?Common standards for management, orchestration, and end-to-end security are still being developed,? said ?The smart city of the future must and will have citywide connectivity for both people and devices (such as sensors).? JESSE BERST, CHAIRMAN OF THE SMART CITIES COUNCIL ?? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: >> Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Svensson. ?The implementation of all this in today?s smart cities uses technologies such as 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and proprietary technologies.? Such technologies are selected for various uses case based on differences in technical characteristics and the need ensure security and reliability. The flexibility of technology choices enables fast deployment, but there is an opportunity to improve the efficiency of wireless networks as well as the management of the M2M devices. The Characteristics of a Smart City When you think about what cities spend most of their money on, and where their capital expenditures are, it?s infrastructure and city services such as water, gas, safety, and lighting. And perhaps the key characteristic of a smart city is that this infrastructure is maintained by an intelligent, networked communications system. ?The communications system of the future is intelligent enough to understand when a utility needs to be serviced, or when a light post needs to be maintained,? said Kiva Allgood, senior director of global market development at Qualcomm. ?And that information goes back to the city so that it can become more effective and efficient, based on the information that?s perceived from the infrastructure and the system.? That fundamental concept of an intelligent system that provides dynamic feedback?of touching a system only when it needs to be touched rather than touching it every day?applies to a great number of use cases. ?Imagine a vision in which all of a city?s work systems are basically predictive,? Allgood said. ?That?s a big leap forward, not just sensing but intelligently sensing. At Qualcomm, we call that event management based on intelligent connectivity. That?s the city of the future.? It?s a city that becomes more in concert with its surroundings. Citizens might even have apps on their phones to help with crowd-sourcing (?There?s a pothole on Main Street? or ?Someone sprayed graffiti at Broadway and Poplar?), and that information goes directly to a work crew or is integrated into the maintenance workflow system. ?You actually have an interconnected system whose components live and breathe together,? Allgood said. ?It?s built on knowledge, on established algorithms, and is intelligent enough to prevent something from happening or divert something from going wrong.? The Birth of a Smart City Smart cities that have implemented intelligent connectivity have similar origins. First, they generally begin with a leadership team that is very forward- thinking, with a strong technology platform. ?Governmental leadership is really a cornerstone of successful smart cities,? Allgood said. ?The implementation of all this in today?s smart cities uses technologies such as 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and proprietary technologies.? ANDERS SVENSSON, HEAD OF 4G SOLUTIONS, ERICSSON NORTH AMERICA ?? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: >> Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Second, consolidation of technology across departments is essential. ?A smart city should be very focused on the concept of reuse, repurpose, reimagine,? Allgood said. ?Think about a light post. What else can that light post do for the city? Can you install Wi-Fi? Can you use it for small cells to get additional backhaul capacity? Can you use it for early-warning signals for tornadoes or pollution? Can you use it for geospatial location for firearms?? Third, these cities have a clear understanding of the monetization component?how a networked society is going to add sufficient value back to the city. ?As an example,? Allgood said, ?Big Belly Solar is already in 1,500 cities, delivering big waste containers with solar compacting technology on top, leveraging 3G communication with a modem and an ultrasonic sensor inside that determines when container needs to be picked up. In real time, this tech provides routing capability to maintenance workers, who only go to the containers that need maintenance.? In such a scenario, efficiency pays for the containers and the technology inside. Wireless? role ?The wireless network of the smart city will evolve to support massive deployment of MTC and M2M communications,? Svensson said, ?enabling use cases such as monitoring and automation of buildings and infrastructure, smart agriculture, logistics, racking, and fleet management.? Potential enhancements in store for the wireless network of the future are as follows: ? architecturally simple devices that use a low- complexity transmission modes and lower data rates ? bandwidth-limited peak rates and half-duplex operation ? sensors that can run on battery power for many years ? long transmission ranges for devices in remote locations ? scalable networks that can connect either a large or a small number of M2M devices ? well integrated device-to-device communication and capillary networks Berst contends that the broad trend is toward multipurpose networks. ?Today, most cities have spotty wireless coverage and multiple networks,? he said. ?We might never reach the day when a single network can serve all of a city?s needs, but multipurpose networks are the future?multiple departments sharing the costs and sharing the network.? n ?The communications system of the future is intelligent enough to understand when a utility needs to be serviced, or when a light post needs to be maintained.? KIVA ALLGOOD, SENIOR DIRECTOR OF GLOBAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT AT QUALCOMM ?? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues Cities must balance convenience with consumer privacy when implementing smart city strategies. By Jim Barthold Today?s smart city is like a grade schooler in a university library; there?s a deep trough of information at its fingertips but only a shallow comprehension of how to access and make use of that information. As the city matures and better understands what?s needed to become genuinely smart, that information will become more accessible, including how to best secure the data that?s retrieved while protecting consumer privacy. ?We don?t have smart cities yet and we don?t have the governance and organizational structures to support the future vision of the smart city,? said Ruthbea Yesner Clarke, research director-smart cities, for research firm IDC. ?In many cases (cities are) subsumed by data. You?re going to have a lot more information from all these devices and you need a lot of ways to manage it.? Smart cities are expected to gather information from public and private data reservoirs to monitor traffic, read water meters, control the electrical grid and assist public safety. The biggest obstacle smart cities face is that, in general, most cities use technology that is less sophisticated than what?s in the hands of the general public. Because of this technology disparity, ?cities ? are really starting to be concerned about the security of this data? that cannot necessarily be protected with old operating systems and passwords, Clarke said. The city must upgrade its technology and install safeguards to protect the integrity of the data it gathers. ?You have to have a citywide cyber security policy and a citywide data privacy policy and a citywide database architecture,? said Jesse Berst, chairman of the Smart Cities Council. ?You can?t trust your individual departments to each get it right. The fire department and public works and water utility can?t all be cyber security experts.? Cities must also tread lightly when it comes to the public they want to serve?even if their best intentions ?? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: are to provide a service that?s a convenience such as Harrisburg?s use of license plate recognition to allow authorized consumers to park anywhere within the city. In that instance, drivers are trading a bit of privacy for the convenience of finding an available spot within the city. Privacy, though is ?going beyond convenience. Convenience implies a smaller type of tradeoff,? Clarke said. The Harrisburg parkers ?are clearly being tracked; that?s the point of the program (but) that?s maybe a privacy concern. We have a lot to do around really being transparent in the government about how data is collected, how it?s used, and how it?s attached to your own personal information.? Smart cities also tap wireless devices as databanks of consumer information. Despite outward appearances, data that comes from those devices and flows across airwaves to network access points isn?t any more of a security risk than data running on wires, said John Marinho, vice president of cybersecurity and technology at CTIA?as long as the cities adhere to established wireless industry best practices. Cities ?can benefit from the experience that the (wireless) industry has in this space. There are best practices that folks can look to as well as a lot of experience that can be leveraged from the private sector,? Marinho said. Cities should also lean on their vendors. ?Those vendors take that enormous cost of security and they amortize it over tens of thousands of customers as opposed to (the city) needing to go build it,? Berst said. ?The Amazons, Microsofts of the world and their cloud material has great redundancy.? Marinho suggested that cities can also tap the expertise of willing wireless service providers as well as the data security companies with which they work. ?You want to leverage those folks that have a lot of experience with this field,? he said. ?There is a wealth of tools regarding security that the industry has made available. In the case of privacy there are industry-best practices that folks should apply.? Vendors should also see smart cities as an opportunity to reuse their technology and expand their businesses from dozens of private customers to hundreds and even thousands of public entities, suggested a Gartner Research report, ?Smart Cities Will Include 10 Billion Things by 2020 ? Start Now to Plan, Engage and Position Offerings,? authored by Anurag Gupta, Bettina Tratz- Ryan and Peter Middleton. ?City governments are fostering citizen and business innovation by giving guidance for data governance and smart city objectives, leaving TSP (Technology and Service Providers) strategists with opportunities to build Cities ?can benefit from the experience that the (wireless) industry has in this space. There are best practices that folks can look to as well as a lot of experience that can be leveraged from the private sector.? JOHN MARINHO, VICE PRESIDENT OF CYBERSECURITY AND TECHNOLOGY AT CTIA >> Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues ?? Architecting Tomorrow?s Smart Cities // May 2015 Editor?s Note Paving the Way for Next-Generation Transportation Sponsored Content: Efficient, Healthier and Faster ? One Smart City at the Time Powering the Smart City of the Future Pervasive Wireless Connectivity is Critical to Smart City Vision Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues FierceWirelessAn eBook from the editors ofshare: >> Partnerships Will Help Smart Cities Deal With Privacy And Security Issues engagement and risk models into their strategies,? the report stated. While not specifically addressing security and privacy concerns, the report offered a road map for how cities can develop commercial partnerships with the vendors that serve those private customers. ?A majority of investments will come from the private sector,? the report said so governments can ?trust the private player to build and operate the project.? ?It goes back to making sure that you?re touching all of the key elements that need to be addressed; that you?re leveraging folks that have experience in this space; that you?re working with folks that have a track record for doing this,? Marinho said. The best news is that cities are still in the early stages of what promises to be a long-term learning experience. ?We don?t have smart cities yet. We have a handful of leading cities that are experimenting with some smart city implementations,? Clarke said. n ?We don?t have smart cities yet. We have a handful of leading cities that are experimenting with some smart city implementations.? RUTHBEA YESNER CLARKE, RESEARCH DIRECTOR-SMART CITIES, FOR RESEARCH FIRM IDC fm 2: Page 2: Page 31: Page 42: Page 53: Page 74: Page 85: Page 96: Page 117: Page 128: Page 139: Page 1410: Page 1511: Page 1612: Button 13: Page 2: Page 31: Page 42: Page 53: Page 74: Page 85: Page 96: Page 117: Page 128: Page 139: Page 1410: Page 1511: Page 1612: fm 3: Page 6: Page 101: Button 14: Page 6: Page 101: