The Vault

Evolution of Mobile Video
White Paper / Jul 2019

The arrival of YouTube in 2005, followed by Apple’s first iPhone in 2007, and Google’s Android platform in 2008, serves as the preamble to what has become a two-screen video market. A decade and a half might seem like a long period of time, but put into context of television’s history, it is a remarkably short timeframe. Color TVs, for example, arrived in 1953, and it wasn’t until the late 1990s before HDTVs hit the market. Viewing behavior itself had remained largely unchanged for decades, where consumption of video largely occurred in designated areas of the house, quite often as a shared viewing experience among household members. Video sources were comparatively limited and curated, resulting in a generally homogenous viewing experience.

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Privacy Policy 1. TWO-SCREEN WORLD BECOMES MANY WITH 5G The arrival of YouTube in 2005, followed by Apple’s first iPhone in 2007, and Google’s An- droid platform in 2008, serves as the preamble to what has become a two-screen video market. A decade and a half might seem like a long period of time, but put into context of television’s history, it is a remarkably short timeframe. Color TVs, for example, arrived in 1953, and it wasn’t until the late 1990s before HDTVs hit the market. Viewing behavior itself had remained largely unchanged for decades, where consumption of video largely oc- curred in designated areas of the house, quite often as a shared viewing experience among household members. Video sources were comparatively limited and curated, resulting in a generally homogenous viewing experience. Streaming media began to “democratize” the viewing experience, shifting choice and con- trols from the content owners and service providers to the viewer. The introduction of other technologies like DVR and VOD services created further diversions from the previous view- ing status quo. While content began to flow to more devices, including outside of the home EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO Analyst: Michael Inouye Content Manager: Eric Abbruzzese TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. TWO-SCREEN WORLD BECOMES MANY WITH 5G ................................................1 1.1. Continuity of Content and New Opportunities 2 Spectrum of the Pervasive Screen ...........3 Out in Public and On the Go ...................6 Computer Vision in Other Applications ....8 2. MEETING THE QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE NEEDS OF THE PERVASIVE SCREEN .............9 2.1. Near-Term QoE Considerations .....................9 Cloud Gaming .......................................10 AR/VR and Ultra-Low Latency in the Enterprise ...................................11 2.2. Longer-Term QoE Considerations ................11 Autonomous Transportation and VR ......11 AR and Smart Glasses ...........................12 3. MARKET OPPORTUNITIES ................... 13 2 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO (for example, workplaces), the smartphone and later the connected TV introduced what have become argu- ably the most significant changes to viewer behavior and the video market at large. These shifts in the video market have yielded a more personal viewing experience that spans the entire spectrum of what, when, and where content is viewed. In mature markets like the United States, consumers have started to shift entertainment budgets from traditional pay TV services to OTT, and the MVPDs have re- sponded by pushing TV Everywhere (TVE) services, and more recently OTT options, which address the chang- ing viewing climate, but also extend the operator’s customer reach beyond its network. This interruption to the typical linear broadcast approach to support on-demand streaming has also im- pacted the hardware deployed by operators into households. STBs, for example, are no longer sold with just a broadcast stack, but now include platforms that help bridge the gap between traditional and OTT services (e.g., HBBTV, Linux, Android TV, etc.). As the video market undergoes its current transformations, the arrival of new technologies—5G in particu- lar—will usher in further changes that will see the market move from a two-screen paradigm (mobile and TV/CTV) to many displays. Within the home, the screen could extend to multiple devices including appli- ances, walls, windows, mirrors, and tables. Display technologies like flexible screens, transparent displays, and modular designs will fuel this expansion of screens within the home. In the public domain, digital signage along with new touchpoints like autonomous and public transportation will extend the screen beyond the home and workplace. Wearables, like smart glasses, will likely have the greatest impact by creating displays anywhere, making the screen virtually ubiquitous. The proliferation of physical displays will also occur over a long period of time due to cost and development/rollout of supporting technologies. 1.1. CONTINUITY OF CONTENT AND NEW OPPORTUNITIES The road to this idea of the pervasive screen will require the development and integration of a range of tech- nologies and markets to ensure continuity of content across displays to produce a seamless viewing experi- ence. The seeds for this transition were sown with the arrival of the iOS and Android ecosystems, giving rise to the two-screen paradigm, and via application/content stores, served as a key role in the monetization of OTT content. Apple further had a significant role in establishing HLS as the predominant choice for ABR in today’s streaming marketplace. As a result, many aspects of the video market have already moved away from the linear viewing experience on predefined channels; in the future, however, the viewing experience will further transcend today’s conception of TVE or portable/mobile viewing on the go, where content continuity more directly refers to content and service portability. The pervasive screen represents the blending of new elements being introduced into the video market today with technologies that are on the horizon. 3 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO SPECTRUM OF THE PERVASIVE SCREEN It is important to distinguish the two halves of the pervasive screen spectrum. The first half speaks to the pervasiveness of content, which started with the rise of mobile screens and will continue as additional dis- plays are added to the mix, and the latter half points to the ubiquity of screens (and applications) through the addition of other technologies like Augmented Reality (AR) and computer vision. Some technologies like 5G are critical pieces of the fabric connecting and making these experiences possible and span (or will span) the entire spectrum of the pervasive screen. There are a number of ingredients that need to come together to yield the pervasive screen, and many of the markets are at different developmental stages. Fixed and mobile broadband in some market segments are quite mature, while other market segments like AR and Virtual Reality (VR) are still in the more nascent stages of development. In addition, key networking technologies like 5G are only just starting to come to the market. The chart above shows a snapshot of some of these ingredients and their expected growth vectors over the next several years. The development and formation of the pervasive screen does not have a specific completion or arrival date. Instead, it should be viewed as a rolling trend that is expanding and developing as new technologies and markets come onboard and integrate into the larger whole. The timeline on the following page illustrates when some of the markets above will start to have an impact on the pervasive screen. Note that this does Chart 1: Ingredients of the Pervasive Screen World Market, Forecast: 2018 to 2024 (Source: ABI Research) Number of Smart Homes (Worldwide) Installed Base of AR/VR HMDs (Worldwide) 5G Subscriptions (Worldwide) OTT Subscriptions (Worldwide) V2X Subscriptions and Autonomous Passenger Vehicles (Worldwide) Fixed Broadband Subscriptions (Worldwide) M ill io ns o f S ub sc ri pt io ns U ni ts (M ill io ns ) M ill io ns o f S ub sc ri pt io ns M ill io ns o f H ou se ho ld s M ill io ns o f S ub sc ri pt io ns M ill io ns o f U ni ts 4 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO not mean these aspects of the market are necessarily at mainstream adoption levels, but rather when they will start to have a larger role. Over time, the market will move from the two- or few-screen paradigm into a transitional stage where screens are added but not necessarily cohesively interconnected. The latter stages of the pervasive screen will see a stronger level of continuity and seamlessness between screens and content. IN THE HOME Within the home, voice control has become a common user interface employed by connected CE manufac- turers and pay TV operators alike. Silicon providers are also embedding AI into their solutions to address the interest from operators and hardware manufacturers that are making or are evaluating the move to virtual assistants (and other features) in order to integrate other platforms like smart home/security, information gathering, content recommendations, and advanced advertising. While privacy concerns remain a critical consideration, the value-added benefits will help with user opt-in. Tasks such as programming a DVR (includ- ing coordinating with personal calendars), reminders about favorite TV shows and sporting events, content recommendations, and integrations with smart home features (e.g., automatically starting a VOD movie and setting the lights) will help offset the loss of some privacy to enable these features. Figure 1: Timeline for the Pervasive Screen (Source: ABI Research) 5 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO In time, computer vision could play a larger role to augment some of these services and features. While this aspect of the home environment is more tenuous—attempts and trials by operators and CE manufacturers (e.g., game console manufacturers) in the past have not yielded strong results or support from users—it would greatly enhance the user experience while offering operators and services a wealth of user informa- tion critical for targeted advertising and affiliate commerce/marketing opportunities. For example, users in future applications could be identified through inference (e.g., facial recognition) to activate user profiles (for content and preferences) and proactively manage the users’ digital entertainment to match with their per- sonal preferences and schedules. A user could have a news feed playing on the mirror display in the morning, and during a commercial break ask for additional information about a watch advertisement, and then see it superimposed on their arm, either via the mirror display or the use of smart glasses. Unlike most targeted ads employed by operators and CTV platforms today, these advertisements could more frequently include a call to action like purchases (or additions to shopping carts) or directing users to brands’ websites, allowing these types of ads to yield similar KPIs more commonly found on mobile and PC platforms, which would also help with cross-platform attribution. The requisite camera/sensor for computer vision does present some potential hurdles and will not be univer- sally accepted by all users or for all applications, particularly in today’s climate where privacy is often placed front and center. While differences exist at a country level, where countries like China employ significantly more monitoring technologies to track their citizens (e.g., facial recognition, Internet monitoring, etc.), plat- forms more generally will have to work across different forms of recognition to identify users to make the ex- perience transferable between devices or displays and acceptable to the widest number of users. This could entail a beaconing system or voice recognition, assuming that the virtual assistant is used for the majority of the user experience. This is an area where AR could help mitigate some of these privacy concerns since the user can better define when and where to use these features. If a user wanted to ensure that the camera (or passive listening device in the case of virtual assistants) was not active in a certain room or for a particular use case, the smart glasses could simply be removed and pocketed or turned off. While these options exist for fixed displays and devices as well, the mere presence of a camera (even if it is off) could still create discomfort among some users. Despite these hurdles, the value-added features and benefits will find acceptance among users as a tradeoff for personal data as has historically occurred with affinity cards for retailers, tracking across the Internet, and social media. The image on the following page illustrates some examples of in-home applications for the pervasive screen, both in the context of video and the integration of other features and services like the smart home. Physical displays beyond the TV and mobile devices will enter the home over time and are anticipated to develop at a slower rate than AR due to higher prices and need for technologies (e.g., transparent displays) to come to the consumer market. 6 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO Connectivity, particularly as more displays are added to the household bandwidth, will also come to the fore- front within the home. To accommodate the growing number of connected devices, operators and vendors are already marketing more advanced Wi-Fi networking within the home—for example, pushing Wi-Fi mesh and network management. As video quality increases, coupled with new displays and touchpoints, the need for greater bandwidth could push some households to consider fixed wireless alternatives like 5G as a way to create a cohesive data plan across devices both in and out of the home. While an option, most households will continue with traditional fixed broadband services, although fixed wireless will play a stronger role in rural areas where fixed broadband infrastructure is too costly to deploy. OUT IN PUBLIC AND ON THE GO At the most basic, users will access services and content on displays at multiple touchpoints in the public envi- ronment. This could occur via a mobile device or further into the future through displays in public transporta- tion (including autonomous vehicles). In these instances, many engagements will stem from preexisting SVOD subscriptions or purchased content, and later from mass transit operators selling access to video services/ content and using these displays for informational and/or advertising purposes. As these opportunities grow, 5G will play a critical role to meet capacity needs and to provide a consistent service throughout the user’s journey by maintaining network uniformity and through simultaneous multi-connectivity (multiple 5G access points, 4G, and Wi-Fi). Figure 2: Examples of the Pervasive Screen in the Home (Source: ABI Research) 7 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO In highly dense urban environments and locations (e.g., sporting venues), mmWave 5G will provide the nec- essary capacity (both up and down) to support the demands of the public. For example, users at a sporting event will be able to record and share content with family and friends, which requires network capacity and low latency. The potential also exists to deploy interactive elements to the stadium experience—for example, using AR to show stats, highlights, and introducing some gamification like trivia. As evidence of 5G’s efficacy to meet the demands of sporting events (e.g., high-quality video and low latency), field trials have already been conducted using 5G to move significant parts of a broadcaster’s production operations to a remote offsite location, saving cost and consolidating workflows. Huawei also announced plans for a 5G 8K TV, perhaps more as a prelude of what is to come (or possible) with 5G and the distribution/reception of data-intensive content like 8K and 360 video/VR. The TV could also serve as a router for LAN access, making it an entry point for fixed wireless broadband. 5G will also engender opportunities for localization. While these applications exist today (e.g., via Bluetooth beacons, GNSS, Wi-Fi, cellular), 5G has the potential to offer better localization and richer, more cohesive ex- periences as part of a hybrid (leveraging existing technologies) positioning system. These applications reach both the consumer and enterprise markets, where the latter could extend to a range of applications including automotive, industrial, and UAV operations. On the consumer front, receiving consumer opt-in remains a priority, and many of the core features (e.g., tracking location, collecting visual/auditory data, and receiving requests by companies for further opt-in) will need to be activated at the platform (e.g., Android, iOS) or browser level where consumers will later grant Figure 3: Examples of the Pervasive Screen in Public (Source: ABI Research) 8 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO individual opt-in to companies based on proximity, in a similar fashion as websites do when informing users about or requesting opt-in for cookies. As an example, users could be reminded about goods they may have added to a virtual cart but did not complete the transaction. Users could also be guided to products of inter- est within the store as well. Regarding products within a store, users could receive prompts to get additional information, see ads/promotions, or view trailers for items related to movies or animated features playing in the theaters. AR could also render virtual billboards and signage, with customized advertisements and displays. This might require visual tags and computer vision or indoor navigation for interior environments, but AR and mixed reality is a critical ingredient to these more advanced and interactive features because it enables seamless transitions between environments and interactions without requiring the user to purpose- fully take out and use a smartphone. COMPUTER VISION IN OTHER APPLICATIONS The focus of this paper is on the video and entertainment markets, but 5G will present new opportunities for video within the commercial and enterprise verticals as well. Examples include: • Communications between field workers and remote staff • Remote viewing, monitoring, and/or control of devices (e.g., UAVs) • Uploading content and coordination between devices (e.g., surveillance systems) While privacy concerns and regulations may limit computer vision in some applications like surveillance (out- side of countries like China), 5G connectivity could still connect networked surveillance cameras and support the need for higher data throughputs and low latencies. High-resolution surveillance cameras, for example, could cover a wider field of view, and therefore require fewer installed cameras, albeit requiring a more ro- bust data connection. In applications such as this, the generation and flow of video does not always go to a screen; in many cases, the video is automatically analyzed by a computer vision algorithm and then stored in a NAS or SAN. 9 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO 2. MEETING THE QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE NEEDS OF THE PERVASIVE SCREEN 2.1. NEAR-TERM QoE CONSIDERATIONS As more households shift viewing time to streaming media, the video industry is pushing to bring these experiences closer to parity with current premium pay TV services. Efforts here have brought elements like low latency to the forefront. Currently, common streaming latencies are in the range of 30 to 60 seconds using ABR (e.g., HLS), with most broadcasts at sub-10 seconds (ignoring intentional delays from live to allow for censorship/editing). Matching broadcast levels is particularly important for sports pro- gramming where key moments could get ruined if a stream is lagging significantly behind broadcasts, in the case of others cheering nearby or through social media notifications. To reach these latency levels, companies are employing different techniques; most, however, are using chunked transfer encoding such as using shorter HLS chunks, which extends to standards like CMAF (standardized packaging), which helps to reduce packaging costs/time. For a large majority of video viewed by consumers, hitting these levels of low latency is all that is needed. There are forms of video today, however, that benefit from lower, ultra-low, latencies. Video related to auctions and gambling, for example, while niche, often needs as close to real-time performance as pos- sible; real-time communication like video conferencing by nature benefits from as low latency as pos- sible. The low latencies touted by 5G, however, go well above and beyond what is necessary for most of today’s streaming media. 5G will help with capacity issues and in time support higher bitrate videos like UHD when mobile devices make the transition to higher resolutions. It is worth noting, however, that the increased availability of UHD content, while certainly a driver for higher data consumption, will not necessarily push data con- sumption up at an equitable level as it becomes available. Companies today are already considering and offering solutions to cut costs while delivering an optimal viewing experience. For example, if a user won’t notice the difference in quality between a 4K or 1080p stream, the user will receive the latter in order to save on transit and egress fees. These cost-saving measures are necessary since video will account for the majority of data (fixed and mobile). It is also important to note that the mix of video data is not uniform across regions, particularly in the splits between mobile and fixed viewing; in some countries within Asia-Pacific, for example, it is more common to see mobile-first services and viewers who primar- ily consume video over these devices. In these cases where mobile viewing is particularly high, 5G could have a more immediate need to address these volumes. While the highest data bandwidths promised by 5G may remain the domain of densely populated urban centers (where mmWave 5G and its massive MIMO antennae arrays are more financially viable), it will help rural and less populated areas to receive higher data rates where fiber and related fixed infrastruc- ture is too costly. Similarly, in homes with enough displays and connected devices to strain their current broadband service, these households may also consider upgrading to wireless 5G instead of moving up to more premium fixed broadband tiers. Positioning 5G as a premium service with very high, if not “un- limited,” data caps could also lure in households that consume a particularly large amount of data. For telcos that are invested in content and streaming services, the wider reach of fixed wireless broadband services will also create more opportunities to sell triple-play packages. 10 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO CLOUD GAMING Other markets, like gaming, will soon place additional demands on data traffic as the industry collectively makes a migration to cloud gaming. While not occurring in the next generation of consoles, more cloud gaming services will launch in the near term, which will in time usher in a more comprehensive shift to the cloud. While the cloud gaming experience from the user’s perspective is ideally indistinguishable from a console or PC, the content workflows (once it has been rendered, encoded, and packaged) are based on video streaming technologies. This allows the games to reach a wide breadth of screens, much like typical streaming video (hence, a good fit for the pervasive screen), but due to gaming’s interactiv- ity/controls, it further pushes current streaming technologies towards ultra-low latency. Gaming is also starting to embrace more continuity between platforms, not unlike streaming video services. There are increased cases of cross-platform game availability and even multiplayer support that spans mobile, PC, and/or console. This allows a game and the users’ profile and experiences to remain connected in the home on a PC or game console (using IP network) and then on the go via a smartphone or tablet (e.g., via 5G). Usage habits and expectations, however, also differ between gamers and typical video streaming. In the home, video streamers often binge-watch during the weekends and have more typical viewing rates during the week. Gamers, on the other hand, can spend considerably more hours throughout the week on their hobby. Gamers will also demand higher bitrates in order to support higher resolutions (new cloud gaming services will support up to 4K gaming) and higher framerates. The video game indus- try is progressing faster towards higher visual quality than streaming video, and cloud gaming will reflect these trends. Cloud gaming will also drive more traffic outside of the home as consumers will use mobile displays while on the go. Latency is a critical area for cloud gaming and was a factor that hindered the adoption of services in years past. Despite the recent attention that cloud gaming is receiving, its roots trace further back to as early as E3 2000 where Finnish company G-Cluster presented its cloud gaming technology. Previous attempts at cloud gaming suffered from poor experiences, and in many regards, it was a solution ahead of its time. Improvements to existing streaming protocols, coupled with 5G, will allow services and operators to of- fer consumers the best cloud gaming experience, creating a point of differentiation and a monetization opportunity for 5G. This extends beyond just latency to include the continuity of the gaming experience, being able to follow a user from in the home and into the public, be it in a coffee shop, public transporta- tion, or in a future autonomous vehicle. While the demands for mobile data will certainly grow, there are some factors that could accelerate this demand if adoption of technologies like AR and VR move faster than anticipated. 11 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO AR/VR AND ULTRA-LOW LATENCY IN THE ENTERPRISE AR and VR have not resonated with consumers as many thought would happen when this current gen- eration of devices launched. There are many reasons for the slower uptake of these devices; high pric- ing and limited content in the early stages, for example, tempered some excitement. Like 3D, there are also individuals who remain reluctant to use a wearable like glasses or a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) (or found the form factors disagreeable), and for others, some have cited poor resolution and lack of reactivity as a cause for dizziness/discomfort. The slower adoption of these technologies has curtailed investment and interest by many companies throughout the value chain in the media and entertainment markets. Many of the issues most cited by users today are getting addressed via updated hardware and the introduction of new technologies/standardizations. Looking at a more extended time horizon, the possibility also exists for devices that offer a mixed or combined experience of AR and VR. These devices would allow the user to select between an AR experience, which combines the real world with virtual ele- ments, and VR, which isolates the user. Within the nearer term, focus has shifted to the enterprise markets where these devices have gained better traction for applications like training, remote assistance, and design. While many of these use cas- es are currently deployed and used on premise with limited needs for high data rates, some applications such as field workers using remote assistance or monitoring/inspections will make use of advancements made in wide-area connectivity like 5G where low latency and reliable connectivity are more critical fac- tors. 2.2. LONGER-TERM QoE CONSIDERATIONS As the more advanced elements of the pervasive screen come online, the need to establish an optimal Quality of Experience (QoE) will shift towards edge computing and ultra-low latencies. In this segment, there are two key markets to consider and their impacts on the consumption of video: autonomous transportation and AR/VR. AUTONOMOUS TRANSPORTATION AND VR While many within the automotive industry have pushed targets out for more mainstream presence of autonomous vehicles (SAE Level 4 to 5 for high and full automation respectively), this mode of transporta- tion will in time have an impact on the video market. Displays in these vehicles will provide opportunities to access video (and gaming) content, serve as a marketing platform (particularly for local businesses), and provide a new avenue for VR use outside of the home or office. In many regards, the screens used in automobiles will mirror the developments within the home as screen time is split between physical displays (in-car and mobile devices) and wearables (i.e., smart glasses and VR HMDs). The primary differ- ence is movement, which in some cases means adapting the entertainment content to the driving (as a passenger) experience—for example, movements from the vehicle could be reflected within a gaming environment to help minimize motion sickness. 12 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO In all cases, network uniformity is necessary to ensure a consistent and uninterrupted experience, par- ticularly critical for gaming and VR applications. Cloud gaming and VR also require very low latencies; for VR applications that use an HMD, the Motion-to-Photon (MTP, or time between user input and display update) latency needs to fall under 20 ms, if not 15 ms (lower is better, of course). Cloud gaming latency requirements vary on the type of gameplay, but at a minimum, a service catering to more casual play- ers would need to support sub-150 ms latencies, and ideally target below 100 ms. If the game service is delivering game types that require even lower latencies, like First-Person Shooter (FPS) or racing games, then latencies need to target sub 50 ms, and ideally match the targets set for VR at 20 ms or less. 5G and edge computing can deliver these lower latencies and meet the bandwidth and network uniformity requirements. Hitting the lowest levels of latency may require the edge, but the telco network will sup- port a wide breadth of use cases and applications to satisfy most users. Bandwidth requirements for these services could also reach high levels, particularly for cloud VR applica- tions, which could range from 50 Mbps to 1 Gbps and higher depending on the complexity of the user experience and type of content. At the higher data requirements, 5G is again the best candidate to bring these types of services. Localization will also play a role where displays in autonomous vehicles will provide both marketing and upsell opportunities for mass transit operators and local businesses. For example, a passenger travelling from work to home may receive ads or promotions for food places along the route, and the user could accept a promotion and the vehicle could drive to that location to pick up food before resuming the journey to their destination. AR AND SMART GLASSES Moving the experience down to the pedestrian level creates the need for further refinements to localiza- tion (particularly indoor) and ultra-low latencies for vision-related applications. Positioning accuracy (e.g., relative versus absolute) will depend on the applications and use cases, but 5G coupled with IoT imple- mentations will address these needs, particularly in indoor environments. Computer vision applications will also benefit from 5G for uninterrupted connectivity and hybrid computing for applications like deep/ machine learning for computer vision and large databases. It is worth reiterating here the need for platform support in order to make opt-in and use of these fea- tures as efficient as possible. Ascribing to an app model, where the user downloads individual brand/ retailer apps to enable these features, will not generate enough traction among the user base. Rather, global opt-in for the tracking and computer vision must occur at the platform level and then individual brand/retailer opt-in can occur in two parts—upfront checklists, and then organically as the user navi- gates public spaces and receives opt-in requests. 13 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE VIDEO 3. MARKET OPPORTUNITIES The pervasive screen will create opportunities throughout the video value chain and incentivize addition- al investment from external markets. Brands and retailers are already increasingly allocating resources to video, be it for advertising/brand awareness or internal communications, and the pervasive screen will accelerate these investments, particularly if advertising and promotional opportunities extend to public areas and personalization yields higher CPMs and other ad rates. Companies operating within the video industry will help their customers deliver video at proper latencies and quality depending on target screens and applications. This will become considerably more challeng- ing as displays come to have less standardized sizes/ratios and resolutions, particularly among modular and virtual displays. For services and operators, the pervasive screen will generate additional data to en- hance content recommendations and personalization, present new marketing and sales opportunities, and tighten integration into other areas like smart home. Some aspects of the pervasive screen, like the spread of physical displays within the home, will take time to develop due to cost and the need for advancements in some technologies, but more near-term devel- opments in AR and 5G will introduce both the concepts and value propositions necessary to springboard the market forward. In the meantime, the two-screen market will continue to serve as the status quo, and market updates like 5G, while critical for many of the more advanced elements of the pervasive screen, will afford services and operators the necessary headroom to meet the needs of their customer base as consumption continues to grow. Cloud gaming also represents a key nearer-term market opportunity for telcos, allowing these operators to push more advanced services, reduce churn, and grow ARPU. Cloud gaming (due to its cloud nature) also fits well in the evolving landscape where content will flow more seamlessly between devices, platforms, and locations, be it in the home or on the go. The pervasive screen will also offer consumers tangible benefits beyond just faster downloads and high- er data limits from 5G; although, for some markets, like cloud gaming, higher data caps (or unlimited) would certainly make fixed wireless an alluring alternative. Positioning, network uniformity, and ultra-low latencies will help usher in new applications to further 5G’s (and related markets) value. While many of these aspects of the market will take time to develop, this affords the operators adequate time to fully deploy 5G services to ensure the technology is ready to deliver the experiences envisioned by the per- vasive screen. Published July 2, 2019 ©2019 ABI Research 249 South Street Oyster Bay, New York 11771 USA Tel: +1 516-624-2500 About ABI Research ABI Research provides strategic guidance for visionaries needing market foresight on the most compelling transformative technologies, which reshape workforces, identify holes in a market, create new business models and drive new revenue streams. ABI’s own research visionaries take stances early on those technologies, publishing groundbreaking studies often years ahead of other technology advisory firms. ABI analysts deliver their conclusions and recommendations in easily and quickly absorbed formats to ensure proper context. Our analysts strategically guide visionaries to take action now and inspire their business to realize a bigger picture. 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